« July 2016 »
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
You are not logged in. Log in
Entries by Topic
All topics  «
DUFFY Media Publications
Welcome to the Blog
Blog Tools
Edit your Blog
Build a Blog
RSS Feed
View Profile

Sunday, 31 July 2016
Who Is Watching Who In Our Government?




Who Is Watching Who In Our Government?






The past months our TV, newspapers and magazines have been overtaken by the Presidential campaigns. The playing field has been narrowed down to two people. But, I do not know who I am voting for. I recently stumbled on some data on the web, that begs the question, Who is watching who?  

The Pentagon’s top 100 contractors raked in $175.1 billion in obligated contracts in 2015, down slightly from 2014’s total of $177.6 billion, according to government figures released this week.


Lockheed Martin was the largest single contractor for the US government in 2015, easily lapping the rest of the field with $36.2 billion. The next closest competitor was Boeing at $16.6 billion.The federal government’s top 100 as a whole obligated $238.5 billion in 2015, meaning the DoD represented about 73.5 percent of those contracts awarded to the biggest firms.


General Dynamics ($13.6 billion), Raytheon ($13.1 billion) and Northrop Grumman ($10.6 billion) rounded out the top five contractors. Health care services firm McKesson, which has a series of major contracts with the Tricare system, was the only non-defense contractor to make it into the top eight overall federal contractors.


The vendor with the most contracts awarded by the Pentagon was FedEx, with 6.1 million, or roughly 46 percent of all contracts handed out by the department. The next closest by number of actions was Cardinal Health, which accounted for just over 2.3 percent of total transactions.


But the number that matters is dollars, and by that regard, Lockheed Marin continues to reign. The world’s largest defense firm, which also topped the contracting list in 2013 and 2014, ensures its dominance of the department with a mix of high-end, exquisite systems and cheaper more numerous weapons and sensors, said Byron Callan, an industry analyst with Capital Alpha Partners.

“Lockheed Martin's dominance can be explained by the F-35, Trident Fleet Ballistic Missile, C-130J and electronics, weapons and services programs too numerous to list,” Callan said. “Their dominance should increase with next year's data as it should reflect the Sikorsky acquisition, though the divestiture of ISGS should somewhat offset the contribution from helicopters.”


Lockheed was the top contractor for the Navy ($15.5 billion), Air Force ($7.3 billion) and Army ($4 billion), as well as for US Special Operations Command ($656.4 million).


This link below takes you to the federal spends



This link below takes you to the IG strategic Plan as mentined below




In the report from the Office of the Inspector General, Strategic Plan 2012-2017. There are some goals set by the Department of Defense Inspector General. One of the goals; Goal 2, was to identify, deter and investigate fraud, waste and abuse.  (entire report is here:  http://www.dodig.mil/pubs/strategic_plan/DoDIGFY12-17StrategicPlan.pdf)


How well did the government follow their own strategic plan?  They did not do so well. In one area in particular where there are BILLIONS of dollars spent each year, in private contracting.  The Army did not consistently comply the requirements for assessing contractor performance.

https://www.fpds.gov/fpdsng_cms/index.php/en/reports.html  (shows the top 100 contractors spend)

The mission of the Inspector General to provide independent, relevant, and timely oversight of the Department of Defense that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability, integrity, and efficiency; advises the Secretary of

Defense and Congress; and informs the public.



"There are 73 federal offices of inspectors general,[3] a significant increase since the statutory creation of the initial 12 offices by the Inspector General Act of 1978.[4] The offices employ special agents (criminal investigators, often armed) and auditors. In addition, federal offices of inspectors general employ forensic auditors, or "audigators," evaluators, inspectors, administrative investigators, and a variety of other specialists. Their activities include the detection and prevention of fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement of the government programs and operations within their parent organizations. Office investigations may be internal, targeting government employees, or external, targeting grant recipients, contractors, or recipients of the various loans and subsidies offered through the thousands of federal domestic and foreign assistance programs.[5] The Inspector General Reform Act of 2008[6] (IGRA) amended the 1978 act[4] by increasing pay and various powers and creating the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (CIGIE).[7]

Some inspectors general, the heads of the offices, are appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate.[8] For example, both the inspector general of the U.S. Department of Labor and the inspector general of the U.S. Agency for International Development are presidentially appointed. The remaining inspectors general are designated by their respective agency heads,[9] such as the U.S. Postal Service inspector general.[10] Presidentially appointed IGs can only be removed, or terminated, from their positions by the President of the United States, whereas designated inspectors general can be terminated by the agency head.[11] However, in both cases Congress must be notified of the termination, removal, or reassignment.

While the IG Act of 1978 requires that inspectors general be selected based upon their qualifications and not political affiliation, presidentially appointed inspectors general are considered political appointees and are often selected, if only in part and in addition to their qualifications, because of their political relationships and party affiliation. An example of the role political affiliation plays in the selection of an inspector general, and the resulting pitfalls, can be seen in the 2001 Republican appointment (and resignation under fire) of Janet Rehnquist[12] (daughter of former Chief Justice of the United States, William Rehnquist) to the post of inspector general for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.[13]" (Source: WIKI)

The Office of Inspector General (OIG) seeks to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Department of Commerce's programs and operations. OIG also endeavors to detect and deter waste, fraud, and abuse. Are they actually do so, or repeating the same things year after year?




OIG monitors and tracks the use of taxpayer dollars through audits, inspections, evaluations, and investigations. The Inspector General keeps the Secretary of Commerce and Congress fully and currently informed about problems and deficiencies relating to Commerce's activities and the need for corrective action.


A PARS procedure is utilized for auditing these contracts. PARs are the method for assessing a contractor’s performance on a contract. Officials prepare PARs in the Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting  System CPARS). CPARS is the Government-wide reporting tool for past performance on contracts. The primary purpose of CPARS is to ensure that current, complete, and accurate information on contractor performance is available for use in procurement source selections. The Federal Acquisition

Regulation (FAR)states that agencies must assign responsibility and accountability for the completeness of past performance submissions and that agency procedures

must address management controls and appropriate management reviews of past performance evaluations. When officials submit a completed PAR, it automatically

transfers to the Past Performance Information Retrieval System (PPIRS). Federal Government source selection officials obtain PARs from PPIRS.


What does the Lead Auditor for the Inspector Generals office get paid?




Is a $92,000 a year salary enough incentive to really look, to really dig to really want to make an impact?


What were the findings in the audit? This was the third time this audit was done.


DoD OIG issued Report No. D-2008-05 7on February29, 2008. The report stated that CPARS did not contain all active system contracts that met the reporting threshold of $5 million. In addition, the audit team reported that:


• 39 percent of system contracts were registered more than a year late;

• 68 percent of system contracts had PARs that were overdue; and

• 82 percent of PARs reviewed did not contain detailed, sufficient narratives

to establish that ratings were credible and justifiable.


The report recommended USD(AT&L) establish a requirement to:

• register contracts in CPARS within 30 days from contract award;

• complete the annual PARs in CPARS within 120 days from the end of the evaluation period; and

• require formal training on writing PAR narratives and the corresponding ratings for the assessors who prepare and review PARs.


In response to the report recommendations, USD(AT&L) issued a memorandum that requires DoD officials to register contracts and complete PARs within 120 days. However, the memorandum did not require formal training for CPARS assessors, as recommended by the FY2008 report.


Other reasons the PARs were not done:


  • did not make preparing the PARs a priority
  • lost track of the PARs
  • did not realize they were still assigned to the PAR as an assessor
  • waited for PAR input from technical officials; or
  • had turnover in the assessors for the PAR.

As of April 20, 2016, the PARs that officials did not complete for the 21 contracts were an average of 312 days late.


There were five contracting offices awarded a total of 156 contracts, valued at $84.4 billion. It was determined that assessors completed PARs for 56 of the 156 contracts as of September 24, 2015. They reviewed the 56 PARs, which had a total contract value of $1.5 billion.  One report for Tiber Creek Consulting was 499 days late, why? This was a $122.5million dollar contract.


http://www.dodig.mil/pubs/documents/DODIG-2016-112.pdf  (shows all the contracts that were late) You can google each contract number to see who it went to.


  • $133 Million contract to Cellco Partnership, 344 days late
  • $235 million contract to Intuitive Research, 305 days late on one report
  • $31.8 Million contract to Torch Technologies, 298 days late
  • $11.7 million contract to AI Signal Research,  279 days late
  • $429 million contract to DRS Optronics Inc, 280 days late
  • $47.7 million contract to Boeing, 292 days late
  • $643,219,534 contract to GE, 356 days late
  • $476 million contract to Redston Defense, 311 days late
  • etc....


You get the picture. Who is watching how our hard earned tax dollars are being spent? Who is holding who accountable for these actions stated in this article? It is next to impossible to fire a civil servant.


We the people want to know how to optimize this. The American public deserves better treatment. How do we form a more and perfect union?


We need to elect officials who will care enough to change this. To enforce what needs to be enforced. To not be persuaded by lobbyists, special interest groups, large corporations, donors, etc.


Which one of  the candidates wants to fix this?  Both CAN fix it, who WILL fix it is the better question.

That is the person I will vote for come November. I want the person who will stop wasting American tax dollars and make the American people their first priority.


Posted by tammyduffy at 9:16 AM EDT
Saturday, 23 July 2016


The Real Story
*All Data in this article comes directly from the NJSP Crime Reports



The Mayor of Hamilton has been touting,"CRIME IN MY TOWN IS THE LOWEST IT HAS BEEN SINCE 1977."  This constant message is a message to criminals,"ALL CRIMINALS WELCOMED."


The residents of Cornell Heights for the past two years have been in contact with the Mayors office, the council, the engineering department and many others; as it pertains to a public safety issue in their neighborhood. Their requests for help have gone ignored. The mayors office never responds, the engineering office closes all the complaints immediately, with a message "issue has been addressed", when it has not. This is how Hamilton really works.

Last evening I got to personally witness first hand how unsafe the town of Hamilton has become. I was followed for over a mile on my way home on foot on Sloan rd. I went to Thriftway after eating at Pizza Uno. This young male followed me as soon as I came out of Thriftway. I went into the new kickboxing place to try to get away from him. He waited across the street. I then quickly walked towards train station and thought he would go the other way, he appeared to do that. However, when I turned around he came running toward me. I then turned around and ran to the train station. No police where there. He was a young male in royal blue tshirt 5'8" and jeans. I thought I could to lose him, but he kept finding me. I crossed over tracks to American Metro way. They have a security guard 24/7 there that patrols the parking lot 24/7 due to the high crime to the building there.  I asked for his help. He was so nice and helped me. He made sure I got to the end of the american metro way area safely and then I ran like a nut to my neighbors house. My neighbor walked me home and stood there until my garage door closed to the ground.  I called the police when I got home to tell them what happened. Hopefully they did go and look for this person. 


People may question why I did not call the police when this was going on. I did not because our Mayor has created an atmopshere that leadership does not care about residents public safety.  The police are stretched so thin that I doubted, especially in the evening, that anyone could have come to help anyway.


Let's review the crime statistics of NJ and Hamilton, Mercer county specifically. 


 NJ 2016 Crime (Projected Data)*

IncidentsPer 100,000
Aggravated Assault710,616219
Forcible Rape77,74224
Larceny and Theft5,650,8761,742
Motor Vehicle Theft358,849111
Murder and Manslaughter13,7424
Crime Rate (Total Incidents)9,320,2488,176,915
Property Crime8,176,5622,521
Violent Crime1,143,686353


 New Jersey Violent Crime vs. National Comparison

 New Jersey Violent Crime vs. National Comparison



Since the current mayor has come into power in Hamilton and gave themselves the role of public safety officer, here is what is happening in Hamilton.


Since 2015....to the new reports that just came out July 15 2016



By Firearm is up 260%

Other Dangerous Weapon is up 400%




With a gun is up 125%

Aggravated Assault with (hand,fist, feet, etc) is up 71.2%

Burglary by Forcible entry is up  46.8%

Larceny is up by 62.2%

By the end of 2015, Rape was up by 63.6%.

By the end of 2015, attempted rape was up by 100%


This is why people do not feel safe in Hamilton. For anyone in leadership to pat themselves on the back and state otherwise is irresponsible. The police department is doing all they can with what they have. It's time there is a better focus on public safety by the towns public safety officer, the mayor.



Posted by tammyduffy at 9:34 AM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 23 July 2016 9:35 AM EDT
Saturday, 16 July 2016
Hunterdon Art Museum Dedicates Terrace To Influential Ceramic Artist Toshiko Takaezu




 Hunterdon Art Museum Dedicates Terrace
To Influential Ceramic Artist Toshiko Takaezu





When renowned ceramic artist Toshiko Takaezu first gazed upon the charming waterfall beside the Hunterdon Art Museum in the summer of 1964, she knew she had found just what she was looking for: a home and a peaceful place where she could focus on her work.

“What a beautiful scene,” she remembered thinking.
That inspiring view brought her from the Midwest to Clinton. She opened a studio at the historic Music Hall to create art and spent nearly five decades donating her time and energy to the Museum, playing a vital role in its growth and passion for contemporary art.
Now that splendid space beside the waterfall is named in her honor: The Toshiko Takaezu Terrace.
“Naming the terrace in Toshiko’s honor serves as a tribute to an artist who was intimately involved with the Museum and whose inspiring work influenced generations of artists,” said Marjorie Frankel Nathanson, executive director of the Hunterdon Art Museum.

Takaezu passed away at the age of 88 in 2011.
All the ceramic tiles on the terrace commemorating Takaezu were created at The Takaezu Studio in Quakertown and fired in her kiln. There are four blue tiles which hold special significance.

“Toshiko was well known for her blue glaze in her work,” said Don Fletcher of The Takaezu Studio in Quakertown. We had a little bit of glaze left over that was hers, and we wanted to use it to add a little bit of her personality to the terrace. The glaze is a direct representation of her spirit.”

Takaezu’s work evolved early on from traditional small utilitarian vessels into the closed forms for which she became known worldwide. The New York Times noted, “[In her] stoneware and porcelain works, some small enough to fit in the palm of one hand, others monoliths more than six feet tall, Ms. Takaezu blended the expressive bravura of painters like Jackson Pollack and Franz Kline with the calm, meditative quality of traditional Japanese pottery in forms suggestive of acorns, melons or tree trunks.”
Two of Takaezu’s pieces are on display at the Museum including Three Graces, which can be found appropriately enough, in the terrace garden. Takaezu had created Three Graces as she sought to experiment in her expanded studio space with bigger kilns to create works on a larger scale. Three Graces – representing love, beauty and wisdom – are large cylindrical cast-bronze pieces that undulate from their base. The piece is on long-term loan from The Takaezu Studio.

Takaezu was born in Hawaii, studied at the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan under a scholarship, before teaching at the University of Wisconsin and the Cleveland Institute of Art. She said she moved to Clinton because she “wanted a quiet studio where I [could] concentrate on my work.” A few years later, she began teaching classes at Princeton University, and did so until 1992.

In the 1960s, Takaezu opened a shop in the Museum to sell the work of fellow artists. In 1967, she organized and planned an Invitational Craft Exhibition that featured the works of prominent artists including George Nakashima, a leading innovator of 20th century furniture design and a father of the American craft movement; and Lenore Tawney, whose monumental sculptural weavings helped create the genre of fiber art. More than 700 people flocked to the Museum for the show’s opening.

Takaezu’s work was celebrated in three Museum exhibitions, including a 1998 show that filled the Museum’s three floors with her ceramics, sculptural forms, painting and weaving.

In 2010, the Emperor of Japan presented her with the Konjuhosho Award conferred on individuals who have made significant contributions to Japanese society, and she chose to have the presentation at the Hunterdon Art Museum. A year later, her memorial service was held at the Museum, near the idyllic waterfall she adored.

Posted by tammyduffy at 11:41 AM EDT
Saturday, 9 July 2016


 CONSUMER ALERT: 2016 Ford Fusion Sedan 2.5L models






This past week my 2016 Ford Fusion 2.5L sedan, died on the highway. The car only has 10,000 miles on it.  There is no recall or safety warning that has been sent out by Ford Motor company on any issues with these vehicles.


I was driving down a superhighway at 65mph when all of the sudden the vehicle's RPM's raised in an unusually high manner. After that, an illuminated wrench (see service manual) message was demonstrated on the dashboard. Immeidately, after that, the airbag lights came on. What happened after that, should never happen with a brand new car. The car died. It had no ability to accelerate and slowed down to a crawl. THE RPM's went to 0.

While this was happening, I was driving through a construction zone. There was no way out. I had an 18 wheeler on my tail. The truck began honking his horn aggressively behind me. I really thought the truck was going to come through my trunk. Fortunately, all of the sudden there was a small area of shoulder that opened up for me to pull over safely. 

A month prior to this event with my vehicle, a coworker had said the same thing happened to their vehicle. They said they took it in three times before the dealer agreed to change something in the car. It was the Throttle body that they eventually changed in the vehicle. The bad part of this system failure was that each time my coworker took their car in, there was nothing in the error codes to show why the service wrench came on. Their car died on the road three times.

After pulling into the emergency lane, I was able to restart the vehicle. I immediately drove it to the nearest Ford dealer. I shared with them what happened and what also recently happened to my coworkers car. I picked up a rental vehicle and off I went. That same day the dealer called me to say, "We cannot find anything wrong with you car, you can pick it up."  I said," I am not picking this car up until you figure out why a new car died on the highway, there is no way I am getting back into that car until it is fixed."  The dealer agreed to continue to investigate the issue. I told them to change the throttle body,for that what was done on another, and the car is fine now.

Later in the day, the dealer called again to say, they still cannot find anything wrong with the vehicle. I reiterated, " I am not taking the car back until you figure it out. The car is unsafe."  I told them again, "Change the throttle body." 


They agreed to have one of their engineers drive the car home that evening and take it out onto the highway to see if they could duplicate the issue. They were able to. 

The day after I got my car back there was a safety memo sent out to all employees to get their vehicles in to have the throttle bodies changed.  This is a potential safety issue that has occurred numerous times with the fleet that they have from Ford. The 2016 Ford Fusion 2.5L sedans, have demonstrated that they are susceptible to a throttle body failure, resulting in a significant reduction in maximum vehicle speed (with maximum RPM of 1,100). This failure may occur at any time, without warning, resulting in a sudden loss of power. The company did  communicate with Ford regarding this issue and has taken expedited, proactive steps to address any potential safety risks and protect company vehicle drivers. What has Ford done for the rest of its drivers globally? If you own one of these vehicles, you need to have your vehicle checked immediately so that you do not have this happen to you.


What is a Throttle body? It is the throttle body cleaning and wiping of the bore and throttle blade. The service is important in order to keep the automobile running smoothly, efficiently, and safely.

What is it?

The throttle manages the flow of fluid and can increase or decrease the engine’s power. It does not control the power or the speed of the engine as is thought by many people. During a throttle body service, a technician cleans out or wipes the bore and throttle blade. When this is done and the air rate is checked and adjusted, a sensor does an idle that is computer controlled. If this is properly done, the car should operate in the idle mode as if it were new.

There is carbon and sludge that the PCV system deposits into the throttle body as the engine operates. This carbon and sludge is cleaned out during the throttle body service. How well the engine operates about a year after service is determined by the way the automobile starts, how well it idles when it’s cold or warm, and when accessories such air conditioning and heat are operating. The carbon and sludge will also affect the way the car starts from a total stop. A service such as this will keep the idle valve, which is computer controlled, clean. If it is left dirty and covered with carbon, it will have to be replaced and such a replacement can be costly.

An important part of the engine is the throttle body, which is part of the air intake system. The air intake system increases the amount of oxygen used for combustion with fuel. You can either gain or lose power with the air intake system depending on the vehicle’s ram. The throttle body is a part of this air intake system. Keeping the throttle body in good operating condition will keep the car running without costly occurrences.

Importance of the Throttle Body Service

Careful and regular throttle body service will keep the emissions from the engine’s exhaust system in check. There is also increased sound when the throttle is applied by way of the accelerator. If the vehicle is operated at lower speeds, there is less noise coming from the engine. However, at higher speeds, the engine tends to become very noisy. These two statements make the throttle body service important in itself, as it makes the automobile more environmentally friendly. A complete throttle body service is recommended every 15,000, 40,000, and 75,000 miles to be sure that the automobile is functioning properly.

It is most important to have the throttle body serviced regularly to avoid the high cost of replacement. The cost of throttle body service or replacing the throttle body varies with the year, make, and model of the car. But, no matter what that year, model, or make may be, replacement is not inexpensive. Excluding the cost of replacing the throttle body for the moment, what is perhaps even more important, is to have the throttle body serviced regularly to keep your car running smoothly and efficiently.

Posted by tammyduffy at 10:16 AM EDT
Monday, 4 July 2016
Against All Odds : Inspired by the Life of Paul Robeson opens July 9




 Against All Odds : Inspired by the Life of Paul Robeson opens July 9



Opening Reception
Saturday, July 9, 2016
Artists, Members & Special Guests: 6-7 pm
Public Reception: 7-9 pm
Presentation – Remembering Paul Robeson, with Denyse Leslie
Sunday, July 10, 3 pm



The Exhibits
The art exhibit, displayed on the first floor of the museum, includes works by local and regional artists, many of whom created works expressly for the exhibit. The works are inspired by Paul Robeson’s life-long battles for racial justice, economic justice and peace. Artists from the Trenton Community A-Team and Homefront have contributed to the exhibit, as well.

On the second floor of the museum, the history exhibit includes archival materials and artifacts loaned and donated by Archives and Special Collections at Alexander Library at Rutgers University and the Julius Lazarus Photo Collection, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard, Princeton Public Library, the Paul Robeson House of Princeton; PBS American Masters – Paul Robeson Timeline.


 The Man
Born in Princeton in 1898, Paul Robeson led an extraordinary life by any account.  Given that he was an African American who faced bigotry and discrimination at every turn, against all odds, he graduated near the top of his class from Rutgers College in 1919, acquired a law degree from Columbia Law School in 1923, became an internationally acclaimed singer and actor performing in O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones, in Showboat and as Othello in Shakespeare’s play.  He became politically involved in response to the Spanish Civil War, fascism, and social injustices. He was an avid supporter of trade unions.  His advocacy of anti-imperialism, affiliation with communism, and criticism of the United States government caused him to be blacklisted during the McCarthy era.


 Paul Robeson (1898-1976) enjoyed great success and popularity as a scholar-athlete, as an actor-musician, as a civil rights and labor activist, and as an advocate for world peace.  Born in Princeton, Paul Robeson had many New Jersey connections.   From 1915 to 1919 he attended Rutgers College, which is currently celebrating the centennial of Robeson’s distinguished record as a scholar and athlete, On the Banks of the Old Raritan.   Robeson was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and Cap & Skull.  His college transcript is part of the Ellarslie exhibit.  As an athlete, Robeson earned varsity letters in four sports at Rutgers, and his prowess was renowned as All-American football player.
As a concert singer, Paul Robeson performed before large crowds worldwide including concerts at Rutgers and Princeton Universities where his powerful bass-baritone voice drew crowds.  The song “Ol’ Man River” (from the musical Showboat) was popularized by Robeson.


While in Princeton, Robeson had a close personal friendship with scientist and Princeton resident Albert Einstein.

As an actor, Robeson performed as the lead in Shakespeare’s play Othello on Broadway, in London and in Princeton.  His dignified interpretation of the character Othello was hailed for its power and originality.  His performance was a milestone in the American civil rights movement.

Robeson’s popularity was diminished in the 1950s by right-wing attacks and slanders during the McCarthy period.  The State Department feared Robeson’s advocacy of civil rights, labor rights, and independence for African colonies.  The FBI tracked his movements and contacts.  Declassified FBI documents are included in the Ellarslie exhibit.  The U.S. government made a concerted effort to smear Robeson and to prevent his travel abroad by seizing his passport.





Posted by tammyduffy at 2:28 PM EDT
Friday, 1 July 2016


Posted by tammyduffy at 7:26 PM EDT
Sunday, 26 June 2016
The Invisible Ethics Policy In Hamilton Mercer County





      The Invisible Ethics Policy In Hamilton 



In Feb 2013, Hamilton's mayor asked the town council to abolish Hamilton’s ethics panel and turn enforcement of the code of ethics for public employees and officials over to the state’s Local Finance Board.  She did this for good reason. So that her staff could run amok.  One of her directors has been named as taking 69 free rounds of golf as a government employee. This same employee never disclosed this information on the required Federal disclosure forms.  The rules are for everyone except the Mayor of Hamilton and her staff.

The mayor’s request to abolish the ethics panel, along with the reforms of contracting procedures that are in the works for the township and the school district, was supposed to be a part of an effort to restore Hamilton residents’ faith in their government after the depressing revelations that emerged when former Mayor John Bencivengo and an aide were convicted on federal corruption. She has does little to nothing to restore any residents faith in government. The mayor has made it a point to hire her relatives, sister-in-laws and soon another for a high ranking position.

The Center for Public Integrity ranked New Jersey first among the states for “transparency and accountability in state government,” with “some of the toughest ethics and anti-corruption laws in the nation. However, bridgegate, Barbiegate, and lots of other corrupt tales have been flying out of New Jersey of late.

Among the things that clearly impressed the center were the state’s Uniform Ethics Code, with its ban on nepotism, (this page must be missing in the Hamilton mayors book of ethics) zero tolerance for gifts, (again more pages missing we guess)  stringent post-employment restrictions and extensive training protocols; its powerful State Ethics Commission, with a majority of its members from outside government, which investigates complaints, holds regular hearings and delivers penalties for violations; its tough pay-to-play law that bars political contributions by vendors; the easy access for the public to officials’ financial disclosure statements, and the anonymous hotline on which citizens can ask questions and report possible wrongdoing.

Financial disclosure is required of public officials and employees because it enables the public to evaluate potential conflicts of interest, deters corruption, and increases public confidence in government. It's required for everyone, except those in the Hamilton administration. They have filed the forms but they are all blank.

Financial disclosure is due July 1 of each year for the preceding calendar year. A grace period is in effect until September 1. If the disclosure is not filed or postmarked by September 1, an automatic fine of $25 per day will begin to accrue, and will continue to build until the disclosure is filed, or the fine reaches $1,500. Fines may be appealed to the Commission, which can waive or reduce the fine, if unusual circumstances prevented the filer from filing on time.

So the laws are clear in NJ. What the Hamilton administration has allowed to go on is against the law. Will anything will happen to those who broke the law?
The NJ State laws are:

 New Jersey
  • Public official, directly or indirectly offers, confers or agrees to confer upon another, or solicits, accepts or agrees to accept from another any benefit as consideration for a decision, opinion, recommendation, vote or exercise of discretion of a public servant, party official or voter on any public issue or in any public election, or any benefit as consideration for a decision, vote, recommendation or exercise of official discretion in a judicial or administrative proceeding (Bribery in official and political matters)
  • Acceptance or receipt of unlawful benefit by public servant for official behavior
  • Official misconduct
CC §2C:27-2
CC §2C:27-10
 CC §2C:30-2
If the bribe/benefit is $200 or less, Crime of the third degree
Max. imprisonment  3-5 years; max. fine $15,000
If bribe is more than $200, Crime of the second degree
Max. imprisonment  5-10 years; max. fine $150,000
  • Public servant , while performing his official functions on behalf of a governmental entity, knowingly transacts any business with himself, a member of his immediate family, or a business organization in which the public servant or an immediate family member has an interest (Unlawful official business transaction where interest is involved)
CC §2C:27-9
Crime of the fourth degree
Max. imprisonment  18 months; max. fine $10,000
  • Representation, appearance or negotiation, directly or indirectly, for acquisition or sale of property by state
  • Representation of state agency in transaction involving pecuniary interest
  • Disclosure or use for personal gain of information not available to public
  • Solicitation, receipt or agreement to receive thing of value for service related to official duties
EC §52-13D-21(i)
EC §52:13D-15
EC §52:13D-20
EC §52:13D-25
EC §52:13D-24

Max. fine $500 - $10,000; suspension from office for 1 year; if decided to be willful and continuous disregard of the code of ethics, may be removed from office and may further bar from holding any public office in the State for a 5 year period.

I sat on the economic development board for 1.5 years and resigned from the board due to the unprofessional aspects and lack of integrity of the township.  The way volunteers were treated was despicable. The lack of integrity demonstrated by township employees was despicable as well.
The township employees have to sit through "integrity training" which in the past was actually taught by the townships insurance company. There are normally zero township officials at the training. Only the workerbees and volunteers (at least at the scheduled training I attended). The HR team from the twp also does attend the training it appears.
It was clear from the townships insurance company that after the training that if anyone ignored the training aspects and the township was sued for something an employee/volunteer did, and they were trained on this aspect, that employee/volunteer would not be covered under the townships policy. They would need to hire their own lawyer and the township would not help them in any way. 
The integrity policy that the township has does not have the teeth in it as the Mayor touts. It is nothing more than a memo, see link below.  
This memo which was written by the prior mayor who went to jail.  It makes reference to a state policy, but the township does not share this state policy with anyone who is asked to sign this memo. One would think they would have the link directly to the State policy near the memo. This is not the case. Clarity on these types of issues is the only way to ensure everyone understands the policy.

In an article by the Trentonian they make reference to a statement by the Mayor.
"In a memo dated Feb. 4, 2013, Yaede informed all township employees, including police officers, that “gifts and other things of value that are otherwise permissible to accept may be impermissible if they are used or displayed in an inappropriate manner, such as in a manner that may create an impression of favoritism or endorsement.”
Any government employee worth the honor of holding office or having a government job, knows full well that they cannot take ANY gift EVER. There are no exceptions. They cannot take even a pencil. If you do, you are out of a job, instantly. So is this why the township employee thought it was okay to take 69 rounds of free golf?
This Hamilton leaderships law is not worth paper it is written on. There is no accountability demonstrated to those who break the laws. A few years a go an employee was arrested for possession and distribution of drugs who worked in compliance and planning.They still have their job with the township, nothing happened.

There is never follow up or accountability given for breaking the law with the current administration. They are running amok. They have a social media policy that their own employees do not follow. There are directors within the township that post inappropriate items constantly. There are no repercussions for that. 

If Hamilton really wants to have "teeth" in their law they will formally prosecute all the people involved with destroying government records over the years. The now retired employee who during his employment thought it was ok to take 69 rounds of golf for free should also be prosecuted. All of the digital files and email prior to July 2010 have been destroyed.  There was no certification done to formally destroy these records. This is against the law, a serious violation of the law. One that should not be ignored as well. Why is the township clerk, mayor and her administration not being held accountable? The same person who took 69 free rounds of gold was the same person in charge of all of the IT (internet and computers)  for the township. 


This tale is all too familiar in Hamilton, Mercer County. The last mayor went to jail. The new one looks like she is on the runway ready to take off to the land of orange jumpsuits. She cannot possibly state she knew nothing of her directors lack of integrity. This is a mayor who dilerately ignores numerous public safety issues, allows her directors to break the law, has 15 double dippers on the payroll who are draining the pension system.  She has also has hired her family members, allowed the destruction of public records with no certification for the destruction of the records, the list goes on and on.

When residents asked the Hamilton mayor what happened to the calming measures that were supposed to be installed in residential neighborhoods, they got zero response. The contractor who was hired to do the work has financially supported the mayors campaigns with thousands of dollars in the past. The contractor is also personal friends with the mayor. The calming measures were never installed and the contract given to the contractor was over $400,000 higher than the other bids given to the town. Today, residents are dealing with tractor trailers speeding through their neighborhoods with toxc with anything from gasoline, explosive materials, oversided loads, etc. 




A North Carolina legislator sponsored and voted on a bill to loosen regulations on billboard construction, even though he co-owned five billboards in the state. When the ethics commission reviewed the case, it found no conflict; after all, the panel reasoned, the legislation would benefit all billboard owners in the state — not just the lawmaker who pushed for the bill.

Tennessee established its ethics commission six years ago, but has yet to issue a single ethics penalty. It’s almost impossible to know whether the oversight is effectively working, because complaints are not made available to the public.

A West Virginia governor borrowed a car from his local dealership to take it for a “test drive.” He kept the car for four years, during which the dealership won millions in state contracts. 

When representatives of a biotech company took Montana legislators out to dinner, they neither registered as lobbyists nor reported the fact that they picked up the bill. They didn’t have to — the law only requires registration upon spending $2,400 during a legislative session. And in Maine, one state senator did not disclose $98 million in state contracts that went to an organization for which he served as executive director. The lack of disclosure was not an oversight; due to a loophole in state law, he was under no obligation to do so.

The stories go on and on. Open records laws with hundreds of exemptions. Crucial budgeting decisions made behind closed doors by a handful of power brokers. “Citizen” lawmakers voting on bills that would benefit them directly. Scores of legislators turning into lobbyists seemingly overnight. Disclosure laws without much disclosure. Ethics panels that haven’t met in years. 

State officials make lofty promises when it comes to ethics in government. They tout the transparency of legislative processes, accessibility of records, and the openness of public meetings. But these efforts often fall short of providing any real transparency or legitimate hope of rooting out corruption. 

That’s the depressing bottom line that emerges from the State Integrity Investigation, a first-of-its-kind, data-driven assessment of transparency, accountability and anti-corruption mechanisms in all 50 states. Not a single state — not one — earned an A grade from the months-long probe.

We give the town of Hamilton, Mercer County an F-- for integrity and an A++ for wasting taxpayers dollars and forgetting what public service really means. It does not mean.....steal all you can from taxpayers, hire your family, ignore public safety, etc.  Wake up Hamilton leadership, residents are tired of your stupidity, greed and ignorance to the law. You are on the same road as the prior mayor.

Posted by tammyduffy at 8:58 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 26 June 2016 12:37 PM EDT
Saturday, 25 June 2016
Edgar Degas: A Strange New Beauty March 26, 2016–July 24, 2016



Edgar Degas: A Strange New Beauty

March 26, 2016–July 24, 2016



A major exhibition focusing on Edgar Degas’s (1834–1917) extraordinary and rarely seen monotypes and their impact on his wider practice, Edgar Degas: A Strange New Beauty is the first exhibition in the U.S. in nearly 50 years to examine these radical, innovative works—and The Museum of Modern Art’s first monographic exhibition of the artist. It will feature approximately 120 monotypes along with some 60 related works, including paintings, drawings, pastels, sketchbooks, and prints, to be seen only at MoMA.

A towering figure in 19th-century art, Degas is best known as a painter and chronicler of the ballet. Yet his work as a printmaker reveals the true extent of his restless creativity, as he mixed techniques with abandon in his studio and shared recipes with colleagues for producing unconventional effects. Captivated by the monotype’s potential, Degas took the medium to new and radical heights, abandoning the academic drawing style of his youth and inventing a new repertoire of mark-making that included wiping, scraping, scratching, fingerprinting, and rendering via removal. The resulting works are characterized by enigmatic and mutable forms, luminous passages emerging from deep blackness, and a heightened sense of tactility. The freedom Degas found in such techniques is an important theme of the exhibition, and the presentation will link his efforts in monotype to works in other mediums.

The exhibition surveys these technical innovations and the range of subject matter they explored, including scenes of modern life; harshly illuminated café singers; ballet dancers onstage, backstage, or in rehearsal; the life of the brothel; intimate moments at the bath; and landscapes. To illuminate how Degas saw iteration as an end in itself, key groupings will show how Degas traced, inverted, and recombined figures into different arrangements, applying pastel or charcoal on paper, or layering oil paint on canvas to further transform his subjects.

Posted by tammyduffy at 4:16 PM EDT
Sunday, 19 June 2016
Third Annual Old Fashion Ice Cream Social



Today, marked the third annual old-fashion ice cream social at the William Trent house in Trenton, NJ. The residents who attended were served free ice cream sundaes (donated by Arctic ice cream), tourse of Trent house, music and discussions with the master gardeners.


Upon entering Trent House we were greeted by the ever gracious, Shawn Carey, a docent at Trent house.  She has served as a tour guide/docent since 2014. She gave us a wondersul overivew of the home and its inventory.  


William Trent built his country estate north of Philadelphia, in New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware River about 1719. It was a large, imposing brick structure, built in the newest fashion. An “allee” of English cherry trees led from the entrance down to the ferry landing. Nearby, there were numerous outbuildings as well as grist, saw and fulling mills along the Assunpink Creek. In 1720 Trent laid out a settlement, which he incorporated and named “Trenton.”


A number of different people have resided in the Trent House during its long history. After Trent died, his son James sold “300 acres plus the brick dwelling house” to William Morris of Barbados who was the half-brother of his father’s second wife, Mary Coddington Trent.


1742 the house was leased to the first Governor of New Jersey, Lewis Morris. Gov. Morris used the house, then called “Bloomsbury Court,” as his official residence until 1746, despite the fact that it was then owned by the Governor of Pennsylvania, George Thomas.


During the American Revolution, the Trent House was occupied by Hessian forces and played a prominent role in several battles fought at Trenton during December of 1776. Later, Dr. William Bryant, the owner of the property, was expelled for his Tory sympathies. Colonel John Cox, a wealthy Philadelphia patriot and Deputy Quartermaster General of the Continental Army, acquired the house and turned the grounds into a supply depot for Washington’s army.


The house returned to prominence in 1835 when Philemon Dickerson, a well-known Jacksonian Democrat, purchased it. The following year he was elected Governor and used the Trent House as his Official Residence.


Again in 1854 it served as the Official Residence of the Governor when the property was purchased by Governor Rodman McCamley Price. Price, a Democrat, made his fortune in the San Francisco Gold Rush of 1849, returning to New Jersey to enter politics.


The last private owner of the Trent House, Edward A. Stokes, donated the building to the City of Trenton in 1929 with the condition that it be returned to its appearance during the William Trent era and be used as a library, art gallery or museum.


After extensive restoration, the Trent House opened as a museum in 1939. Today it is owned by the City of Trenton and operated by the Trent House Association. The William Trent House is a designated National Historic Landmark and is listed in both the State and National Registers of Historic Places.


We then ventured outside and had a conversation with the master gardeners on hand.  We learned that Mr Trent had an extensive historic kitchen garden at the William Trent House is designed and managed by Historic Horticulturist Charlie Thomforde, with the assistance of numerous dedicated volunteers from the Rutgers Master Gardeners of Mercer County. When William Trent built his home in what would become the City of Trenton there were no grocery stores or produce markets. Families needed to be relatively self-sufficient. A kitchen garden served to provide food and medicines. Vegetables, herbs, flowers and fruits were grown side by side and used for food, drink, cosmetics, medicine, and more.


Though considerably smaller then Trent’s own garden would have been today’s garden is planted in an 18th century style with raised beds and tamped dirt paths between and within the beds. Just as the Trent House is symmetrical, so is the garden. It is divided into four equal squares, as was the custom of the day. All the plants grown in the garden are heirloom varieties, similar to those that would have been grown in the Trents’ garden.


This link will take you to photos from today's event





While the name of many of these 18th century plants are often familiar, the appearance frequently is not. Some of the plants are not as big or colorful: Carrots are short and stubby. Cardoons, a member of the artichoke family, have a strong bitter flavor while citron melons have little taste at all.


A close view of the heirloom garden during the summer when vegetables are almost ready for harvest, showing the beautiful variety of greens and a row of lavender flowers paralleling the red brick rear perimeter wall.The kitchen garden is a year-round activity. Peas, cabbages, lettuces, spinach, turnips, and radishes are planted during the cool spring weather.


The warm days of summer find melons, beans, cucumbers and carrots growing while the cool days of fall require planting “cover” crops, such as winter rye. In the spring these crops are not harvested but are turned into the soil to add nutrients. Some crops, like cabbages and peas are planted in the fall and allowed to “winter-over,” ready for harvest in the spring. The fava beans and peas that we got to sample were fantastic!


Children and adult groups come to the Trent House Museum throughout the year to learn about early 18th century gardening methods, plants, and plant uses.


 The William Trent House is located on the corner of William Trent Place and Market Street, across from the Hughes Justice Complex. (15 Market Street in Trenton, NJ)

Wednesdays – Sundays: 12:30 to 4:00. Closed municipal holidays.




Adults    $5.00

Seniors    $4.00

Children    $4.00


Posted by tammyduffy at 4:36 PM EDT
Sunday, 12 June 2016
CORPORATE GREED: EPIPEN Goes From $60 To Over $613




EPIPEN Goes From $60 To Over $613



Former hedge fund manager Martin Shkreli had the Internet ablaze after hiking the price of the drug that's been on the market for decades.  An HIV/AIDS patient advocacy group began raising questions about why Turing Pharmaceuticals jacked up the price for a medication from $13.50 per pill to $750 overnight, anger against the company has been boiling over.


The medicine, Daraprim, which has been on the market for 62 years, is the standard of care for a food-borne illness called toxoplasmosis caused by a parasite that can severely affect those with compromised immune systems. Turing purchased the rights to the drug and almost immediately raised prices.


Alarmed consumers took to Reddit to call for a boycott of the company's products (with some pointing out that it's hard to boycott a drug if you'll die without it) and calling for new laws to prevent this kind of thing from happening in the future.


Judith Aberg, a spokeswoman for the HIV Medicine Association, has calculated that even patients with insurance could wind up paying $150 per pill out of pocket. The enormous, overnight price increase for Daraprim is just the latest in a long list of skyrocketing price increases for certain critical medications.  Americans should not have to live in fear that they will die or go bankrupt because they cannot afford to take the life-saving medication they need.


In 2016, Mylan Pharmaceuticals took the same approach as Martin Shkreli and raised what was once an affordable life saving drug to one that is not affordable.  Yet, there was no public outcry like that heard when Shkreli did the same thing.


Heather Bresch, is the CEO of Mylan Pharmaceuticals makes a lot of money.  Her total compensation is $9.96 million. Her compensation is broken down as follows: At $998,077, Bresch's base salary is the only one on our list to dip below $1 million. But her stock and options helped make up for that, at $2.84 million and $1.38 million, respectively. Plus, her incentive pay amounted to $2.375 million. She received $1.96 million in pension benefits and deferred compensation, plus $405,683 in other compensation, including $133,346 in personal use of the company aircraft.


Bresch grew up in Fairmont and Farmington, West Virginia. Her father, Joe Manchin is current a United States Senator in West Virginia.   Bresch attended high school in West Virginia. She also graduated from (WVU) in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations.


Bresch was an MBA student at WVU until 1998. In 2007, the Pitsburgh Post-Gazette reported that Bresch had claimed to have an MBA degree from West Virginia University, but the university disputed that. The university subsequently awarded her an MBA despite her not having attained sufficient credits (22 out of the required 48). In the ensuing controversy, the university announced in April 2008 that it would rescind Bresch's degree. Michael Garrison, WVU President at the time, was reported to be "a family friend and former business associate of Bresch" and a former consultant and lobbyist for Mylan. After a faculty vote of no confidence, Garrison and several university officials subsequently resigned.


From 2002 to 2005, Bresch served as Mylan's director of government relations. She contributed to the development of the 2003 Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA, also known as "Medicare Part D).


When Mylan expanded internationally, Bresch noticed that Mylan's US-based pharmaceutical manufacturing plant had full-time staff from the  FDA devoted to it, whereas facilities abroad had not been inspected by the FDA for more than a decade.


Bresch persuaded several of Mylan's competitors to support what became the Generic Drug User Fee Act, which she proposed to lawmakers in 2010. Under the law the pharmaceutical industry would pay fees of $300 million in order to fund FDA inspections of foreign drug manufacturing facilities at the same rate as US-based facilities.


To advocate for the new law, she made regular visits to Washington, D.C., and sponsored a whitepaper.  The Generic Drug User Fee Act of 2012 was passed on July 9, 2012 and required FDA inspections of pharmaceutical manufacturing locations abroad if they are importing into the US.


Bresch has also advocated for broader availability of Epipens in public places to treat anaphylaxis (severe allergic reactions), and has been active in raising awareness of HIV/AIDS treatment in developing nations.  She helped facilitate the School Access to Emergency Epinephrine Act, which made epinephrine more accessible in schools.


In a 2007 purchase of medicines from Merck KGaA, drugmaker Mylan picked up a decades-old product, the EpiPen auto injector for food allergy and bee-sting emergencies. Management first thought to divest the aging device, which logged only $200 million in revenue. Then Heather Bresch, now Mylan’s chief executive officer, hit on the idea of using old-fashioned marketing in part to boost sales among concerned parents of children with allergies. That started EpiPen, which delivers about $1 worth of the hormone epinephrine, on a run that’s resulted in its becoming a $1 billion-a-year product that clobbers its rivals and provides about 40 percent of Mylan’s operating profits, says researcher. EpiPen margins were 55 percent in 2014, up from 9 percent in 2008.


How Mylan pulled that off is a textbook case in savvy branding combined with a massive public awareness campaign on the dangers of child allergies. Along the way, EpiPen’s wholesale price rose roughly 400 percent from about $57 each when Mylan acquired the product. “They have done a tremendous job of taking an asset that nobody thought you could do much with and making it a blockbuster product,” says Jason Gerberry, a Leerink Partners analyst.


But while EpiPen has given countless parents a sense of security that their children can go out in the world safely, the device’s soaring price—up 32 percent in the past year alone—has forced some families to make difficult choices in order to afford the life-saving medicine. The price increases are among the biggest of any top-selling brand drug, according to DRX, a unit of Connecture that tracks drug pricing. After insurance company discounts, a package of two EpiPens costs about $415, DRX says. By comparison, in France, where Meda sells the drug, two EpiPens cost about $85. “There is a danger with that,” says George Sillup, chairman of the pharmaceutical and health-care marketing department at Saint Joseph’s University. If the company raises the price too much, “that could create some backlash.” People will die because they will use expired epipens or worse, not purchase one and they need it.


The company sees it differently. “Mylan has worked tirelessly over the past years advocating for increased anaphylaxis awareness, preparedness, and access to treatment,” Mylan spokeswoman said in a statement.  They also said the company doesn’t control final retail prices for EpiPen and offers coupons that eliminate co-pays for most patients. Bresch declined to comment for this story. These coupons that they make reference to range from $5 to $25 off the price of the epipen.


The CEO has made no secret of her strategy to increase demand for EpiPens by getting them stocked for emergency use in more schools and other public places. (So-called entity prescriptions allow for this.) “We are continuing to open up new markets, new access with public entity legislation that would allow restaurants and hotels and really anywhere you are congregating, there should be access to an EpiPen,” Bresch  has said.  So, then why the massive price increase patients are asking. As the demand has increased the costs to manufacture the drug have gone down, significantly. The more you make the less it costs to make it.


Over the past seven years, Mylan has hired consultants who had worked with Medtronic to get defibrillators stocked in public places. Bresch, the daughter of Senator Joe Manchin (D-W.Va.), turned to Washington for help. Along with patient groups, Mylan pushed for federal legislation encouraging states to stock epinephrine devices in schools.


In 2010, new federal guidelines said patients who had severe allergic reactions should be prescribed two epinephrine doses, and soon after Mylan stopped selling single pens in favor of twin-packs. At the time, 35 percent of prescriptions were for single EpiPens. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration had changed label rules to allow the devices to be marketed to anyone at risk, rather than only those who’d already had an anaphylaxis reaction. These are both big events that Bresch has capitalized on, at the risk of patient safety.


In 2013, the year following the widely publicized death of a 7-year-old girl at a school in Virginia after an allergic reaction to peanuts, Congress passed legislation encouraging states to have epinephrine devices on hand in schools. Now 47 states require or encourage schools to stock the devices.


Since 2012, Mylan has helped popularize its brand by handing out free EpiPens to more than 59,000 schools. Last year it signed a deal with Walt Disney to stock EpiPens in Disney’s theme parks and on cruise ships. We will guess that this was not done for free. Is Disney paying $600 a pop for the epipens?

Mylan also spent $35.2 million on EpiPen TV ads in 2014, up from $4.8 million in 2011, according to researcher Nielsen. Mylan disputes the ad spending figures but declines to offer alternatives. Is Bresch really concerned about people having reactions or just concerned about her own golden parachute?


In part because of Mylan’s efforts, the number of patients using EpiPen has grown 67 percent over the past seven years. Many kids with allergies own multiple sets, for school and home. And for doctors, who write prescriptions for the name they know best, the EpiPen brand “is like Kleenex,” says Robert Wood, a pediatric allergist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. However, Bresch has made the Epipen cost a lot more than Kleenex.


So far rivals haven’t been able to break Mylan’s market grip. Sanofi’s Auvi-Q, introduced in 2013, is in the shape of a credit card and—unlike EpiPen—gives step-by step audio instructions. But Sanofi priced Auvi-Q about the same as EpiPen, and the product struggled initially to gain insurance coverage. Sanofi says 9 out of 10 patients with commercial insurance can now receive coverage for Auvi-Q prescriptions. Yet in the first half of 2015, EpiPen had about an 85 percent share of epinephrine prescriptions vs. only 10 percent for Auvi-Q, according to Symphony Health Solutions data compiled by Bloomberg.


Still, allergy sufferers without generous health benefits feel the pain. Denise Ure, a social worker in Seattle, has a peanut allergy so severe that the last time she ingested a nut crumb in 2011, she needed three EpiPens and was hospitalized. Ure says she cried last year when she found out a prescription for two EpiPens would cost her about $350. “I was terrified because there’s this life-saving medicine that I needed, and I couldn’t afford it,” she says. Ure now carries two EpiPens she got in Canada, where they cost about half as much.


The biggest threat to EpiPen could come from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries. It settled a patent lawsuit in 2012 allowing it to market a generic version of EpiPen as early as this year, if it wins FDA approval. Mylan isn’t too worried. Predicted Bresch in August: “You would not see the traditional market loss because of just the brand equity with EpiPen.


The bottom line: When Mylan bought EpiPen in 2007, the devices had $200 million in annual sales. Today revenue exceeds $1 billion.


The author of this article is no stranger to anaphylactic events. In her lifetime she has had over 10 significant events. All related to unknown cross contamination, hidden peanut oil used to cook their food, or an establishment who served food with nuts, it was returned and all they did was remove the hunk of nuts.


One such event came from eating dehydrated vegetable soup by Alessi.  All the author did was add boiling water to the soup. Within minutes of eating the soup she had head to toe hives that were multiplying by the minute. Her throat began to close off and she could not breath. By the time she got to the ER, she was in bad shape. The emergency room team was able to bring her back to normal but it took 4 days for the swelling to dissipate.

She had saved the pouch from the soup, for she could not understand what happened. She contacted Alessi and they investigated it. It turned out that the vegetable soup was packaged in the same plant where they packaged their biscotti cookies (that are loaded with nuts). They sent her 3 packages of olive oil for her troubles. She did not use the olive oil, although appreciated the gesture.


This is just one example. She is currently planning a trip to Africa and part of the planning process for trips is to ensure the chefs have the ability to handle her nut allergy. There were many hotels that said, No, tell her to bring her epipen." Imagine her dismay when she went to get a new one for the trip and find it cost $614 at CVS with insurance. A call to the company only told her to go to the epipen.com cost to get a coupon. A coupon that ranged from $5 to $25. YIPEE!!


An epinephrine autoinjector or epipen is a medical device for injecting a measured dose or doses of adrenaline by means of autoinjector technology. It is most often used for the treatment of anaphylaxis. The EpiPen is derived from the MARK I NAAK ComboPen, which was developed for the U.S. military for treating exposure to nerve agents in the course of chemical warfare.


After activation, the patient holds the device in place for between 5 and 10 seconds as the epinephrine is delivered. This gives the drug enough time to be absorbed by the body's muscles and diffused into the bloodstream.

Auto-injectors are sometimes used unnecessarily. Injection into a vein (intravenous injection) can be fatal. It can cause ventricular tachycardia, in which the heart beats uncontrollably and is not able to pump blood adequately. It can also restrict blood flow to the area of the injection site, and damage the extremities.[2] After administering the device, patients are advised to seek immediate medical attention.

An emergency technique (not manufacturer-approved) to obtain additional epinephrine from a used autoinjector has been published in the medical literature.[3]

Units that have exceeded their expiration date can still be used in an emergency if an unexpired unit is unavailable and the solution is neither discoloured nor contains precipitates.[4]


Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction that has many possible triggers, occurs quickly, without warning, and must be treated immediately with epinephrine. Symptoms may include hives, itching, swelling or redness of the skin, tightness in the throat, nausea, dizziness, breathing problems, a decrease in blood pressure and/or fainting. Anaphylaxis can be caused by triggers, such as food, stinging and biting insects, medicines, latex or even exercise. While symptoms of an allergic reaction vary from person to person, reactions can quickly progress to become life-threatening.


Food allergies are a growing public health concern.  As many as 15 million people have food allergies. An estimated 9 million, or 4%, of adults have food allergies.  Nearly 6 million or 8% of children have food allergies with young children affected. 


Food allergies may be a trigger for or associated with other allergic conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.


Although childhood allergies to milk, egg, wheat and soy generally resolve in childhood, they appear to be resolving more slowly than in previous decades, with many children still allergic beyond age 5 years. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or shellfish are generally lifelong allergies and even progress in severity as we age in some cases.


The prevalence of food allergies and associated anaphylaxis appears to be on the rise. In 2008, the CDC reported an 18 percent increase in food allergy among children between 1997 and 2007.  According to a study released in 2013 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, food allergies among children increased approximately 50% between 1997 and 2011. The economic cost of children’s food allergies is nearly $25 billion per year.


There are eight foods that account for 90% of all food-allergic reactions: milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts (e.g., walnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, pecans), wheat, soy, fish, and shellfish.  An estimated prevalence, some based on self-report, among the U.S. population:

o Peanut: 0.6-1.3%

o Tree nuts: 0.4-0.6%

o Fish: 0.4%

o Crustacean shellfish (crab, crayfish, lobster, shrimp): 1.2%

o All seafood: 0.6% in children and 2.8% in adults


 A study has shown that peanut can be cleaned from the hands of adults by using running water and soap or commercial wipes, but not antibacterial gels alone. In addition, peanut was cleaned easily from surfaces by using common household spray cleaners and sanitizing wipes but not dishwashing liquid alone.  Some studies have also shown that most individuals with peanut and soy allergies can safely eat highly refined oils made from these ingredients. However, cold-pressed, expeller-pressed, or extruded oils should be avoided.


Casual exposure, such as skin contact and inhalation, to peanut butter is unlikely to elicit significant allergic reactions. However, those with significant reactions to nuts can demonstrate hives and GI disturbances just from sitting near people eating a food containing nuts.


According to the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protect Act (FALCPA) the major eight allergens must be declared in simple terms, either in the ingredient list or via a separate allergen statement. However, FALCPA does not regulate the use of advisory/precautionary labeling.


Eating away from home can pose a significant risk to people affected by food allergy. Research suggests that close to half of fatal food allergy reactions are triggered by food consumed outside the home.  One study looking at peanut and tree nut allergy reactions in restaurants and other food establishments found that reactions were frequently attributed to desserts, that Asian restaurants and take-out dessert stores (bakeries, ice cream shops) were common sources of foods that triggered reactions, and that the food establishment was often not properly notified of a food allergy by the customer with the allergy.


Research on self reported reactions occurring on commercial airlines show that reactions to peanuts and tree nuts do occur on airlines via ingestion, contact, and inhalation. Ingestion of an allergen remains the main concern for severe reactions.


The CDC reported that food allergies result in more than 300,000 ambulatory-care visits a year among children under the age of 18. From 2004 to 2006, there were approximately 9,500 hospital discharges per year with a diagnosis related to food allergy among children under age 18 years.  Even a small amounts of a food allergen can cause a reaction.  Most allergic reactions to foods occurred to foods that were thought to be safe. Allergic reactions can be attributed to a form of mislabeling or cross-contact during food preparation.


 Food allergies are the leading cause of anaphylaxis outside the hospital setting.  Every 3 minutes a food allergy reaction sends someone to the emergency department– that is about 200,000 emergency department visits per year, and every 6 minutes the reaction is one of anaphylaxis.  A failure to promptly (i.e., within minutes) treat food anaphylaxis with epinephrine is a risk factor for fatalities.


Unfortunately, there is no cure for food allergies. Strict avoidance of food allergens and early recognition and management of allergic reactions to food are important measures to prevent serious health consequences.


We can only hope that the CEO of Mylan does some deep soul searching and decreases the cost of this life saving drug. Or maybe, TEVA pharmaceuticals will get their generic approved and sweep Mylan under the carpet as it pertains to their financial position on this drug.






What are the common signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis?

A: According to a 2010 article published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, during anaphylaxis symptoms can  range from mild to severe and may affect:

• Skin (up to 90% of episodes): hives (urticaria), itching (pruritus), flushing, itching and swelling of lips, tongue, uvula/palate2,3,4,5,6

• Airway (up to 70% of episodes): shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheezing, itchy throat, hoarseness (dysphonia)2,4,5,6

• Gastrointestinal system (up to 45% of episodes): nausea, cramping, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea2,4,5,6

• Cardiovascular system (up to 45% of episodes): hypotension, chest pain, fast heart rate (tachycardia), weak pulse,

dizziness, fainting2,4,5,6

• Central nervous system (up to 15% of episodes): feelings of uneasiness, throbbing headache, dizziness, confusion,

tunnel vision2,5

Q: How quickly do symptoms appear?

A: Symptoms typically appear within minutes to a few hours following contact with an allergen.1,7

Q: How many Americans are at risk for anaphylaxis?

A: Though data on anaphylaxis incidence and prevalence are sparse and often imprecise, estimates indicate that anaphylaxis is a growing health problem that may affect 3 to 43 million Americans. There has been an increase in life-threatening allergic reactions in recent years, but as evidence by the range provided, more research needs to be conducted


How are people treated for anaphylaxis?

A: According to food allergy guidelines released in December 2010 by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), epinephrine is the only first-line treatment in all cases of anaphylaxis (including from food allergies) and should be available at all times to people at risk for anaphylaxis.3 Avoidance of allergic triggers is the critical first step to prevent a serious health emergency; however, accidental exposure may still happen.6,13

According to NIAID, if experiencing anaphylaxis, use an epinephrine auto-injector and seek immediate emergency medical attention.Carrying an epinephrine auto-injector does not prevent patients from having an anaphylactic reaction; hence, patients must avoid

their allergen at all times.3,6,14


Q: When should epinephrine be administered?

A: Epinephrine is the only first-line treatment in all cases of anaphylaxis (including from food allergies).3 If experiencing anaphylaxis, use an epinephrine auto-injector and seek immediate emergency medical attention.3

Anaphylaxis occurs when an allergic reaction involves one body system, either respiratory or cardiovascular alone; it may also occur in multiple body systems, such as the skin, gastrointestinal, and/or central nervous system.1 It is important to carry an epinephrine autoinjector if you have been diagnosed with life-threatening allergies. Carrying an epinephrine auto-injector does not prevent patients from having an anaphylactic reaction; hence, patients must avoid their allergen at all times.3,6,14

It is important to remember that the benefits of epinephrine treatment outweigh the risks of delayed or no administration. Delays in epinephrine administration have been associated with negative health consequences, even possibly death.15,16,17 Since

there are no absolute contraindications to epinephrine administration for an anaphylactic reaction, it is important to administer epinephrine immediately even if all criteria for anaphylaxis diagnosis have not yet been met.5


Q: How many doses of epinephrine are recommended for an individual to have on hand?

A: Epinephrine takes effect within minutes, but it is rapidly metabolized. As a result, its effect can be short-lived and repeated dosing may be necessary. In fact, according to a 2005 literature review published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, up to 20% of individuals who receive epinephrine will require more than one dose before symptoms are alleviated.18 The NIAID food allergy guidelines recommend that all patients at risk for or who have experienced anaphylaxis have access to two doses of epinephrine at all times.3 Seek immediate medical attention after use.


Q: Are antihistamines a viable treatment option for anaphylaxis?

A: Antihistamines are not indicated to treat the life-threatening symptoms of anaphylaxis. Antihistamines are useful for relieving itching and hives. They do not relieve shortness of breath, wheezing, gastrointestinal symptoms or shock. Therefore, antihistamines should be considered adjunctive therapy and should not be substituted for epinephrine.3

Despite these facts, the use of antihistamines is the most common reason reported for not using epinephrine and may place a patient at significantly increased risk for progression toward a life-threatening allergic reaction.


What happens when a person has a life-threatening allergic reaction to food?

A: Food allergy-induced anaphylaxis occurs when the immune system is exposed to a specific food that triggers the release of chemicals, including histamine, resulting in symptoms of a life-threatening allergic reaction.3 Symptoms may include low blood

pressure, difficulty in breathing, nausea and/or vomiting.2


Q: How many Americans have food allergies?

A: While the exact prevalence of food allergies is uncertain, a 2010 study in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology estimated 2.5% of Americans have a clinical food allergy.20 A study in the July 2011 issue of Pediatrics found that 8% of children suffer from a food allergy — a considerable increase from previously reported figures.21

Q: Is there a cure for food allergies?

A: There is no cure for food allergies. Avoidance of allergic triggers is the critical first step to prevent a serious health emergency; however, accidental exposure may still happen.6,13 In fact, cross-contamination of otherwise safe foods at the time of packaging or food preparation (especially in restaurants) remains a potential hazard for individuals with food allergies.22 This is why it is important to be prepared with an anaphylaxis action plan, which includes avoiding known allergens, recognizing symptoms and having access to two epinephrine auto-injectors.1,12,23

Q: Are food allergies on the rise?

A: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2008 that an 18% increase in food allergy was seen between 1997 and 2007.24 A study published in the July 2011 issue of Pediatrics found a considerable increase in food allergy from previously reported figures — it found that 8% of children in the U.S., or approximately one out of 13, suffer from a food allergy. Of those children affected, 38% had a history of a severe reaction, and 30% had allergies to multiple foods.21 The prevalence of peanut allergies among children under 18 significantly increased from 0.4% in 1997 to 1.4% in 2008 (p <


Q: How many children are at risk for anaphylaxis from food allergies?

A: A study published in the July 2011 issue of Pediatrics found that an estimated one out of 13 children in the U.S. suffer from a food allergy, a considerable increase from previously reported figures.21 A survey conducted in 109 Massachusetts school districts

from 2001 to 2003 evaluating the use of epinephrine for anaphylaxis management in schools found that up to 24% of anaphylactic reactions occurred in individuals who were not known by school personnel to have a prior history of life-threatening allergies.


What is causing the increase in food allergies?

A: There is no definitive answer as to why food allergies are increasing. One theory, called the hygiene hypothesis, suggests that modern hygienic processes and a generally more sterile environment have reduced exposure to certain bacteria. To compensate, the immune system is conditioned toward an allergic state.13

Q: Can the severity of food allergy-induced anaphylaxis be predicted based on a person’s prior reactions?

A: The severity of food allergy-induced anaphylaxis cannot be predicted based on a person’s prior reactions. An estimated 22% of people who experience fatal food-induced anaphylaxis have had a previous severe reaction.27 The severity of a food-triggered life-threatening allergic reaction depends on a number of factors, including the amount eaten,

the food form (cooked, raw or processed) and the co-ingestion of other foods. Other considerations include the person’s age, the body’s sensitivity at time of ingestion, the speed at which food is absorbed by the body, and whether the person has another life-threatening condition, such as severe or uncontrolled asthma.22

Q: What are the most common food allergens associated with anaphylaxis?

A: The most common food allergens that can cause anaphylaxis are cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, soybeans, peanuts, tree nuts (walnuts, cashews, pistachios, pecans, etc.), fish and shellfish.13

Q: Why is food intolerance often confused with food allergies?

A: According to the NIAID food allergy guidelines, food allergies and food intolerance share some of the same symptoms; however, food intolerance does not involve the immune system. It can cause great discomfort but is not life-threatening. Some

people with food intolerances are not able to digest certain foods because their bodies lack the specific enzyme needed to break down that food.


What should people at risk for anaphylaxis look for in food labels?

A: By law, the eight major allergens (cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, soybeans, peanuts, tree nuts including walnuts, cashews, pistachios and pecans, fish and shellfish) must be noted on all packaged food labels in the U.S., either in the ingredient list or

on a separate allergen statement.29 However, individuals with food allergies should be aware that advisory or precautionary labeling (i.e., “may contain,” “in a facility that also processes”) is not regulated and is solely voluntary.29

Q: Other than food, what are the most common triggers that lead to anaphylaxis?

A: Other common triggers of anaphylaxis are insect venom, latex, medications or exercise-induced. In about 20% of cases, no trigger is identified, known as idiopathic anaphylaxis.







1Branum A, Lukacs S. Food allergy among U.S. children: Trends in prevalence and hospitalizations. National

Center for Health Statistics Data Brief. 2008. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.htm

2National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. Report of the NIH Expert Panel on Food Allergy Research. 2006. Retrieved from www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/foodAllergy/research/ReportFoodAllergy.htm

3U.S. Census Bureau.State and County QuickFacts. 2010. Retrieved from quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html

4Gupta RS, Springston, MR, Warrier BS, Rajesh K, Pongracic J, Holl JL. The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States. J Pediatr.2011; 128.doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0204

5Liu AH, Jaramillo R, Sicherer SH, Wood RA, Bock AB, Burks AW, Massing M, Cohn RD, Zeldin DC. National

prevalence and risk factors for food allergy and relationships to asthma: Results from the National Health and

Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. J Allergy ClinImmunol.2010; 126: 798-806.

6Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. QuickStats: Percentage of children aged <18 years with food, skin, or hay fever/respiratory allergies --- National health interview survey, United States, 1998—2009. 2011. Retrieved

from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6011a7.htm?s_cid+mm6011a7_w

7U.S. Census Bureau. State and County QuickFacts.2010. Retrieved from quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html

8Sampson HA. Update on food allergy. J Allergy ClinImmunol.2004; 113(5): 805-19.

9NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United

States: Report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. J Allergy ClinImmunol.2010; 126(6):S1-S58.

10Liacouras CA, Furtura GT, Hirano I, Atkins D, Attwood SE, Bonis PA, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: Updated consensus recommendations for children and adults. J Allergy ClinImmunol.2011.doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.02.040

11 Skripak JM, Matsui EC, Mudd K, Wood RA. The natural history of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. J Allergy

Clin Immunol 2007; 120(5):1172-7.

12 Savage JH, Matsui EC, Skripak JM, Wood RA. The natural history of egg allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;


13 Keet CA, Matsui EC, Dhillon G, Lenehan P, Paterakis M, Wood RA. The natural history of wheat allergy. Ann

Allergy Asthma Immunol 2009; 102(5):410-5.

14 Savage JH, Kaeding AJ, Matsui EC, Wood RA. The natural history of soy allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;


15Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong, A, Sampson HA. Prevalence of seafood allergy in the United States determined by a random telephone survey. J Allergy ClinImmunol.2004; 114: 159-165.

16Jackson K et al. Trends in Allergic Conditions among Children: United States, 1997-2011. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db121.htm17Gupta R, et al. The high economic burden of childhood food allergy in the United States. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2012; 109: A1-A162.

18May CD. Objective clinical and laboratory studies of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to food in asthmatic children. J Allergy ClinImmunol.1976; 58: 500-515.

19 Bock SA, Buckley J, Holst A, May CD. Proper use of skin tests with food extracts in diagnosis of hypersensitivity to food in children. J Allergy ClinImmunol.1977; 7: 375.

Food Allergy Research & Education

www.foodallergy.org • (800) 929-4040

20 Bock SA, Lee W-Y, Remigo LK, et al. Appraisal of skin tests with food extracts for diagnosis of food hypersensitivity. J Allergy ClinImmunol.1978; 8: 559.

21Sampson HA, Albergo R. Comparison of results of skin tests, RAST and double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy ClinImmunol.1984; 74: 26-33.

22 Sampson HA, McCaskill CM. Food hypersensitivity and atopic dermatitis: evaluation of 113 patients. J. Pediatr.1985; 107: 669-75.

23Bock SA, Sampson HA, Atkins FM, et al. Double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) as an office procedure: A manual. J Allergy ClinImmunol.1988; 82: 986-997.

24 Bock SA, Atkins FM. Patterns of food hypersensitivity during 16 years of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges. J Pediatr.1990; 117: 561-567.

25 Perry TT, Conover-Walker MK, Pomes A, Chapman MD, Wood RA. Distribution of peanut allergen in the environment. J Allergy Clin Immunol.2004; 113(5): 973-976.

26Bush RK, Taylor SL, Nordlee JA, Busse WW. Soybean oil is not allergenic to soybean-sensitive individuals. J Allergy Clin Immunol.1985; 76: 242–245.

27Taylor SL, Busse WW, Sachs M1, Parker JL, Yunginger JW. Peanut oil is not allergenic to peanut-sensitive individuals. J Allergy Clin Immunol.1981; 68: 372-5.

28 Hoffman DR, Collins-Williams C. Cold-pressed peanut oils may contain peanut allergen. J Allergy

ClinImmunol.1994; 93: 801-2.

29Keating MU, Jones RT, Worley NJ, Shively A,Yunginger JW. Immunoassay of peanut allergens in food- processing materials and finished foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol.1990; 86: 41-4.

30Crevel RW, Kerkhoff MA, Koning MG. Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils. Food and Chemical

Toxicology.2000; 38(4): 385-393.

31Hefle SL, Taylor SL. Allergenicity of edible oils. Food Technol. 1999; 53: 62–70

32Simonte SJ, Sonhui M, Shideh M, Sicherer S. Relevance of casual contact with peanut butter in children with peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2003(112):180-182.

33Wainstein BK, Kashef S, Ziegler M, Jelley D, Ziegler JB. Frequency and significance of immediate contact reactions to peanut inpeanut-sensitive children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007; 37(6): 839–845.

34Crespo JF, Pascual C, Dominguez C, Ojeda I, Munoz FM, Estaban MM. Allergic reactions associated with airborne fish particles in IgE-mediated fish hypersensitive patients. Allergy.1995; 50: 257-61.

35Roberts G, Golder N, Lack G. Bronchial challenges with aerosolized food in asthmatic, food-allergic children.Allergy.2002; 57: 713-7.

36U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food allergen labeling and consumer protection act of 2004 (public law

108-282, title II). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/food/labelingnutrition/FoodAllergensLabeling/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm


37 Ford LS, Taylor SL, Pacenza R, Niemann LM, Lambrecht DM, Sicherer SH. Food allergen advisory labeling and product contamination with egg, milk, and peanut. J Allergy Clin Immunol.2010; 126(2): 384-5.

38 Bock SA, Muñoz-Furlong A., Sampson H. Further fatalities caused by anaphylactic reactions to food, 2001-

2006. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007; 119(4): 1016-8.

39Bock SA, Muñoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Fatalities due to anaphylactic reactions to foods. J Allergy

ClinImmunol.2001; 107(1): 191-3.

40 Sampson HA, Mendelson L, Rosen J. Fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to food in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med.1992; 327(6): 380-4.

41Furlong TJ, DeSimone J, Sicherer SH. Peanut and tree nut allergic reactions in restaurants and other food establishments. J Allergy ClinImmunol.2001; 108: 867-70

42Sicherer SH, Furlong TJ, DeSimone J, Sampson HA. Self-reported allergic reactions to peanut on commercial airliners. J Allergy ClinImmunol.1999; 103(103):186-189.

43 Comstock SS, DeMera R, Vega L, Boren EJ, Deanne S, Haapanen LA, Teuber SS. Allergic reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, and seeds aboard commercial airliners. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2008; 101: 51-56.

44Greenhawt MJ, McMorris MS, Furlong TJ. Self-reported allergic reactions to peanut and tree nuts on commercial airlines. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2009;124(3): 598-599. doi: 10.1016.jaci.2009.06.039

45Laoprasert N, Wallen N, Joes R, et al. Anaphylaxis in a milk-allergic child following ingestion of lemon sorbet containing trace quantities of milk. Journal of Food Protection.1998; 61: 1522-4.

46Gern, J, Yang E, Evrard H, Sampson HA. Allergic reactions to milk-contaminated ‘non-dairy’ products. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 976-9.

47Yunginger J, Gauerke, M, Joes R, et al. Use of radioimmunoassay to determine the nature, quantity and source of allergenic contamination of sunflower butter. Journal of Food Protection.1983; 46: 625-8.

Food Allergy Research & Education

www.foodallergy.org • (800) 929-4040

48Jones R., Squillace, D., Yunginger, J. Anaphylaxis in a milk-allergic child after ingestion of milk contaminated kosher-pareve-labeled ‘dairy-free’ dessert. Annals of Allergy.1992; 68: 223-7.

49Hourihane J, Kilbrun S, Nordlee J, et al. An evaluation of the sensitivity of subjects with peanut allergy to very low doses of peanut: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study. J Allergy

ClinImmunol.1997; 100: 596-600.

50U.S. Food and Drug Administration.Approaches to establish thresholds for major food allergens and for gluten in food. 2006.

51Sampson HA. Anaphylaxis and emergency treatment. J Pediatr.2004; 111: 1601–1608.

52Clark S, Espinola J, Rudders SA, Banerji, A, Camargo CA. Frequency of US emergency department visits for food-related acute allergic reactions. J Allergy ClinImmunol. 2011; 127(3): 682-683.

53 Ellis AK, Day JH. Incidence and characteristics of biphasic anaphylaxis: a prospective evaluation of 102 patients. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.2007: 64-69.

54Korenblat P, Lundie MJ, Danker RE, Day JH. A retrospective study of epinephrine administration for anaphylaxis: how many doses are needed? Allergy Asthma Proc. 1999; 20: 383-386.

55 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Food allergies: What you need to know. 2008. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ffalrgn.html

56American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and American College of Allergy, Asthma and

Immunology.Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters; Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. J

Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005; 115: S483-523.

57McIntre CL, Sheetz AH, Carroll CR, Young MC. Administration of epinephrine for life-threatening allergic reactions in school settings. J Pediatr. 2005; 116(5): 1134-1140.

58 Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Conover-Walker MK, Wood RA. Food-allergic reactions in schools and preschools. Arch

Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001; 155(7): 790-795.

59Sicherer SH, Furlong TJ, DeSimone J, Sampson HA. The US peanut and tree nut allergy registry:

characteristics of reactions in schools and day care. J Pediatr. 2011: 128(4): 560-565.

60McIntre CL, Sheetz AH, Carroll CR, Young MC. Administration of epinephrine for life-threatening allergic reactions in school settings. J Pediatr.2005; 116(5): 1134-1140.

61Gold MS, Sainsbury R.First aid anaphylaxis management in children who were prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector device (EpiPen). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000; 106(1 pt 1): 171-176.

62 Sicherer, SH. Epidemiology of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 127: 594-602.


Posted by tammyduffy at 7:43 PM EDT

Newer | Latest | Older